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miércoles, 6 de febrero de 2008

Elecciones EU: Migración, Delegados y Colegio Electoral

Debido a los resultados de ayer, se ha vuelto a hablar acerca del voto latino, que apoyó a Clinton y no a Obama, y el tema de la migración en el debate de las primarias.
Aquí copio las opiniones de los candidatos para que des un vistazo a sus propuestas.
Info obtenida de la pagina sobre las elecciones en el NYT.


MIGRACIÓN EN EL DEBATE DEMÓCRATA

Hillary Clinton
Democrat
Senator from New York
Supports a path to legalization for illegal immigrants that includes learning English and paying fines; toughen penalties for hiring illegal immigrants; voted for fence along Mexican border.
On the Border Fence and Border Security:
"It is unconscionable to think that in a post-9/11 world we do not know precisely who is entering and exiting our country. Our homeland security requires that we know the identities of all people who cross our borders. In reforming our broken system, our efforts must be multifaceted and comprehensive."— Statement, March 8, 2006
"A comprehensive solution to our immigration crisis must include strengthening our borders."— Statement, May 1, 2007
On Illegal Aliens Already in the Country:
SUPPORTS A PATH TO LEGALIZATION FOR ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS THAT INCLUDES LEARNING ENGLISH AND PAYING FINES; TOUGHEN PENALTIES FOR EMPLOYERS WHO HIRE ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS
Make it easier for immigrants to bring families. Supports agricultural jobs program; opposes guest worker program that can lower wages of American workers or exploit immigrants. Create new system to verify employment eligibility. Opposes driver’s licenses for illegal immigrants.
"I'm in favor of comprehensive immigration reform, which includes tightening our border security, sanctioning employers to employ undocumented immigrants, helping our communities deal with the costs that come from illegal immigration, getting the 12 million or so immigrants out of the shadows. That's very important to me.
After 9/11, we've got to know who's in this country. And then giving them a chance to pay a fine, pay back taxes, learn English and stand in line to be eligible for a legal status in this country."— Democratic debate, April 26, 2007

Actions on the Issue
Co-sponsored the Legal Immigrant Children's Health Improvement Act of 2007, which would lift the current waitng period of five years for federal health care benefits for legal immigrants.— More information
Voted yes on the "Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006," which would have created a guest worker program and addressed border security issues.— More information
Voted yes on the "Secure Fence Act of 2006," which created 700 miles of new fence along the US/Mexico border.— More information

Barack Obama
Democrat
Senator from Illinois
Supports a path to legalization for illegal immigrants that includes learning English and paying fines; toughen penalties for hiring illegal immigrants; voted for fence along Mexican border.
On the Border Fence and Border Security
"We're going to have to secure our borders. And this past year, the Senate invested billions of dollars in improving border security. I think that's important because I think all Americans think that we should be able to regulate who comes in and out of this country in an orderly way, not only for the sake of our sovereignty, but also to avoid the hundreds of people who have been dying across the desert, the enormous costs that are placed on border states and border towns. I also think that we've got to be serious about employers' obligations to check to see whether somebody is here legally or not...There hasn't been a serious program of employer sanctions. That has to be put in place."— "Larry King Live," March 24, 2007
On Illegal Aliens Already in the Country
SUPPORTS A PATH TO LEGALIZATION FOR ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS THAT INCLUDES LEARNING ENGLISH AND PAYING FINES; TOUGHEN PENALTIES FOR EMPLOYERS WHO HIRE ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS
Create system to verify employment eligibility. Supports guest worker programs but would like immigrant workers to be less dependent on employers to stay in the country. Supports granting driver’s licenses to illegal immigrants.
"[We] have to recognize that we've got 12 million undocumented workers who are already here. Many of them living their lives alongside other Americans. Their kids are going to school. Many of the kids, in fact, were born in this country and are citizens. And so, it's absolutely vital that we bring those families out of the shadows and that we give them the opportunity to travel a pathway to citizenship. It's not automatic citizenship. It's not amnesty. They would have to pay a fine. They would have to not have engaged in any criminal activity. They would have to learn English. They would have to go to the back of the line so that they did not get citizenship before those persons who had come here legally."— "Larry King Live," March 24, 2007

Actions on the Issue
Co-Sponsored the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act of 2007, which would allow states to give illegal immigrants in-state tuition for higher education and let the homeland security secretary confer legal resident status on some illegal immigrant students.— More information
Co-sponsored the Citizenship Promotion Act 2007, which would require the federal government to freeze the fee that legal immigrants pay for each application for services at current levels and called for $80 million a year to promote citizenship.— More information
Voted yes on the "Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006," which would have created a guest worker program and addressed border security issues.— More information
Voted yes on the "Secure Fence Act of 2006," which created 700 miles of new fence along the US/Mexico border.— More information



MIGRACIÓN EN EL DEBATE REPUBLICANO

John McCain
Republican
Senator from Arizona
Supports a path to legalization for illegal immigrants that includes learning English and paying fines; voted for fence along Mexican border.
On the Border Fence and Border Security
Says border security is the "first and foremost priority."
"One thing we would all agree on, the status quo is not acceptable. We have to secure our borders. But we also need a temporary worker program, and we have to dispose of the issue of 12 million people who are in this country illegally. This issue is an important and compelling one, and it begins with national security. But we also need to address it comprehensively."— Republican debate, May 3, 2007
On Illegal Aliens Already in the Country
SUPPORTS A PATH TO LEGALIZATION THAT INCLUDES LEARNING ENGLISH AND PAYING FINES
"We need to have a guest worker program. ... Our proposal is basically you can get a tamper-proof visa after your job has been proven that it cannot be filled by an American citizen. ... What do you do with the 11 million people that are already here? ... Make them earn citizenship because they have broken our laws. My friends, thats not amnesty. Amnesty is forgiveness. We're not forgiving anything."— In New Hampshire, April 7, 2007

Actions on the Issue
Co-Sponsored the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act of 2007, which would allow states to give illegal immigrants in-state tuition for higher education and let the homeland security secretary confer legal resident status on some illegal immigrant students.— More information
Co-Sponsored and voted yes on the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006, which would have created a guest worker program and addressed border security issues.— More information
Voted yes on the "Secure Fence Act of 2006," which created 700 miles of new fence along the US/Mexico border.— More information

Mitt Romney
Republican
Former governor of Massachusetts
No path to legalization; toughen penalties hiring illegal immigrants; finish building border fence.
On the Border Fence and Border Security
Finish building border fence.
"My view, you have to secure the border, number one, have an employment verification system, number two, and number three, say to those that are there illegally, get in line with everybody else; you're not going to have a special doorway, any particular advantage, by having come here illegally, to become a permanent resident."— Republican debate, May 15, 2007
On Illegal Aliens Already in the Country
NO PATH TO LEGALIZATION; TOUGHEN PENALTIES FOR EMPLOYERS WHO HIRE ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS
Issue biometric identification cards to noncitizens and create a verification system. Streamline system to recruit skilled workers. Cut financing to cities where officials cannot enforce immigration laws.
"The first thing I'd like them to do is to register, so I know how many there are, and what their circumstances are. And on that basis, we can see who would receive temporary employment visas and who would instead be required to return home."— San Francisco Chronicle, March 17, 2007
"There's no question as we deal with the issue of immigration, having a national special card that indicates a person's name, date, birth date, biographic information, and an indication of their work status will allow us to know who's here legally, who's not, who can work and who cannot."— Republican debate, May 3, 2007

Actions on the Issue
As governor of Massachusetts, opposed giving driver's licenses to illegal immigrants.
Vetoed a bill allowing the children of illegal immigrants to pay in-state tuition at the state's universities.
Signed an agreement with federal authorities in December 2006, allowing Massachusetts State Police troopers to arrest and seek deportation of suspected illegal immigrants they encounter over the course of their normal duties.

Mike Huckabee
Republican
Former governor of Arkansas

Give illegal immigrants 120 to register and leave, after which they could apply to return; toughen penalties for hiring illegal immigrants; finish border fence by 2010.
On the Border Fence and Border Security
Finish border fence by 2010; deploy 23,000 more patrol agents.
"I think this can't be brought to a rational discussion until we first bring security to the borders. I think that this has to be the very first step that the president takes, is secure the borders, physically or electronically so that you stop this porous situation where people come across at will. Until that happens, all of the discussion of what we need to be doing on this side with the existing immigrants becomes moot."— The Des Moines Register, April 13, 2007
On Illegal Aliens Already in the Country
GIVE ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS 120 DAYS TO REGISTER AND LEAVE, AFTER WHICH THEY COULD APPLY TO RETURN; TOUGHEN PENALTIES FOR EMPLOYERS WHO HIRE ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS
Increase skilled worker visas. Create system to verify legal status.
"We shouldn't have amnesty where we just say, 'Fine, everybody's good, we're going to let it go.' We should have a process where people can pay the penalties, step up and accept responsibility for not being here legally.
But here's the point. The objective is not to be punitive. The objective is to make things right. Right for us. Right for them."— "This Week," February 7, 2007

Actions on the Issue
Sponsored a resolution, adopted by the Southern Governors Association, which, among other things, recommended implementing a farm labor system to import farm workers from Canada and Mexico.
Proposed a bill that would have allowed children of undocumented immigrants who graduated high school to qualify to receive a state scholarship to attend an Arkansas college. That bill didn't pass the state legislature.
As governor of Arkansas, opposed a proposal banning state-funded services to illegal immigrants.


*****
Después del verdadero lío de ayer para comprender las elecciones y caucuses realizados en la mitad del territorio estadounidense, decidí expicar(me) cómo es que funcionan las primarias, fundamentalmente el asunto de los delegados. Recomiendo seguir por televisión a CNN international sobre todo el programa situation room.

ACERCA DE LOS DELEGADOS
Es importante mencionar que cada estado tiene sus propias reglas electorales, tanto para las elecciones primarias como para las elecciones generales.

En las elecciones primarias en los EU se elige al candidato de cada gran partido (además del Demócrata y del Republicano existen otros partidos en este país, como el Constitutional, Libertarian y el Green Party, sin embargo estos dos son quienes cuentan con un mayor número de seguidores y son los partidos tradicionales con más representantes electos).

Antes de que comiencen las elecciones primarias que comienzan a principio del año electoral (2008), los aspirantes anuncian su candidatura para buscar con ello apoyo económico a través de los comités exploratorios (exploratory comittees). Las elecciones, tanto las primarias como las presidenciales son financiadas solamente con fondos privados, de manera que cada aspirante requiere el mayor apoyo económico de personas físicas y morales para estar en condiciones de competir. Para ver las finanzas de cada candidato aquí. Iniciamente había alrededor de 10 candidatos por cada partido, mismos que de acuerdo con el financiamiento recibido, así como los votos obtenidos hasta el momento han ido disminuyendo.
Hasta hoy se ha retirado la gran mayoría, quedando solamente 2 candidatos demócratas: Hillary Clinton y Barack Obama y 4 candidatos republicanos: John McCain, Mitt Romney, Micke Hukabee y Ron Paul.

Para que el partido elija al candidato presidencial, es necesario realizar elecciones en cada uno de los estados de la Unión Americana, de manera que apartir del 3 de enero comenzaron a realizarse las elecciones primarias y caucuses en todos los estados de acuerdo con fechas acordadas previamente con las sedes nacionales de cada partido (es por ello que Michigan y Florida fueron "castigadas" pues adelantaron las fechas de las elecciones).

Cada partido tiene determinadas fechas de votación en cada estado, de manera que hay estados que ya votaron por sus candiatos republicanos y no han votado por los demócratas y viceversa.

Un caucus es una asamblea popular celebrada por ciudadanos ya sea miembros del partido o votantes independientes que discuten y votan quién debe ser o puede ser el mejor candidato de su partido. Una elección primaria se celebra de la misma forma que una elección general, es decir, se tachan boletas de manera secreta.

Las primarias se dividen en tres "etapas": January, Super Tuesday y Spring:

A partir del 3 de enero se han celebrado ya 6 fechas y 6 estados para los demócratas, siendo el día de ayer "el super Tuesday" la 7ma fecha de elecciones en donde se eligió candidatos en 23 estados, así como para los demócratas en el extranjero.

Para ser electo candidato demócrata para la presidencia es necesario obtener 2,025 delegados de un total de 4,049. Para los repubicanos ayer fue la 9na fecha y se eligió candidato en 21 estados (ya superaron elecciones en 8 estados). Para ser electo candidato demócrata para la presidencia es necesario obtener 1,081 delegados de un total de 2,380.

En las elecciones y caucuses de ambos partidos se seleccionan delegados "vinculados" (pledged), esto es, que están obligados a votar por el candidato que eligió su estado. Hay además, delegados no vinculados (unpledged) o superdelegados que son libres de votar por el candidato que ellos deseen. Normalmente estos delegados son líderes del partido y representantes electos. 793 super delegados demócratas y 463 republicanos. Frente a 3,253 delegados vinculados demócratas y 1,917 republicanos.

Los delegados vinculados son seleccionados atendiendo a los distritos congresionales, es decir, el número de delegados que obtenga cada candidato serán proporcional al número de votos obtenidos en cada distrito. Un candidato que obtiene el 40% de l votación, obtendrá el 40% de los delegados, pero se requieren obtener más del 15% de a votación para tener delegados, de manera que los delegados que "sobren" serán repartidos entre aquellos que puedan tenerlos.

Las elecciones primarias y caucuses tendrán lugar hasta el día 12 de julio en Nebraska para los republicanos. Después, estos delegados, tanto los pledged como los super delegados votarán por un candidato el día de la convención nacional de cada partido y de ahí saldrá el candidato presidencial de cada partido para la contienda electoral que será resuelta en las elecciones del 4 de noviembre de 2008.

Las convenciones nacionales se celebrarán:
Agosto 25-28, 2008 Convención Nacional Democrática en Denver, Colorado.
Septiembre 1-4, 2008 Convención Nacional Republicana en Saint Paul, Minnesota.

Mapas de resultados electorales hasta ayer 5 de febrero con resultados por distrito:
Demócrata y Republicano

Recomendado:
http://www.cnn-politics.com/


¿Cómo se elige al Presidente de los Estados Unidos?
El día 4 de noviembre de 2008 en los 50 estados de la Unión Americana y el Distrito de Columbia serán electos los miembros del Colegio Electoral. Quienes se reunirán en cada estado el día 15 de diciembre para votar por el/la Presidente y el/la Vicepresidente.
El día 6 de enero de 2009, los votos electorales son contados oficialmente por ambas Cámaras del Congreso Federal, durant este proceso pueden ser impugnados los votos.
El día 20 de enero de 2009 es la toma de posesión o Inauguration Day.

De acuerdo con el Artículo Segundo de la Constitución de los Estados Unidos, y la 12va enmienda, el Presidente será electo por un Colegio Electoral (conoce a detalle el Electoral College). Estos 538 electores son seleccionados a través de mecanismos dispuestos por cada legislatura estatal. Generalmente através del voto popular de los ciudadanos de cada estado.
El Candidato que obtenga la mayoría de los votos del Colegio (270) será nombrado Presidente de los EU (lo mismo aplica para el Vicepresidente). La repartición de votos electorales en cada estado se realiza a partir de los censos de población.




El problema tanto de las elecciones de delegados en las primarias, así como de los electores en el Colegio Electoral es que puede suceder que gane un candidato que no tenga la mayoría del voto popular, como le sucedió a Al Gore en 2000. Interesantísimo el caso de las boletas de Florida llevado ante la Suprema Corte Bush v. Gore.

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